Chinese Opera Film: At the Intersection of Theater, Cinema, and Politics

All day
Through June 16, 2012

Begins
Jun. 14

This international project on Chinese opera file emerged from a pioneering two-day symposium on this topic co-organized by Judith Zeitlin, Xinyu Dong and Paola Iovene at the University of Chicago Film Studies Center in April 2009. The success of the symposium led to an invitation from The Opera Quarterly to co-edit a special double issue on this topic, the first time that this journal (published by Oxford) has ventured outside the Western canon. This special issue was simultaneously published both as a hard copy and on line in September 2010: http://oq.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/2-3.toc?etoc


YANG Jiandong, YANG Chunxia and ZHAO Jingbo watch a clip from a Chinese Opera Film during their panel discussion.
Chinese opera films are much more than mere stage recordings and by no means a minor byproduct for the film industry. Opera films were produced in astounding numbers in socialist China—120+ from 1953-1966 alone; another 216+ were produced from1970-1988, and although the number of releases has since radically decreased, new opera films continue to be released every year and the old “classics” are constantly aired on the CCTV opera channels. Although many of these films can be considered important works in their own right, scholars of Chinese cinema have only paid scant attention to them. Scholars of Chinese drama, on the other hand, have basically treated them as documents of stage practices and have not adequately considered their status as films and their position in Chinese film history. As our preliminary 2009 symposium demonstrated, to make sense of Chinese opera film, a collective effort is needed to bring together a variety of fields of inquiry and disciplinary approaches, including history, politics, drama, music, art design, and cinema.

The papers presented at the 2009 symposium focused on discourses and practices in the People’s Republic from its founding through the Cultural Revolution, bringing to light widely shared theoretical and practical concerns as well as the performative and musical elements that filmmakers adapted from various arts forms.  In the Beijing conference we will expand the inquiry into two directions: we will explore opera film as a transregional genre that was popular in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and throughout Southeast Asia, and will consider PRC opera films produced after 1978–a time in which Chinese state studios underwent important transformations. This will also involve considering the impact of “diasporic cinema” on these later PRC productions, thereby also enabling us to draw clearer connections between opera film reception abroad and post Cultural Revolution production. We expect the Beijing conference to continue the important work begun at the Chicago symposium of undertaking case studies of key films, filmmakers, and performers; such case studies provide a crucial empirical foundation for more sweeping overviews and analyses. Finally, it is hoped that the conference will contribute to strengthening the dialog between scholars based in the US and Europe, and those based in China, Hong Kong, and Singapore—a central mission, as we see it, of the Chicago Beijing Center.

June 14, Thursday 星期四

15:30 Registration

16:00 Keynote Speech

Every Colour Red? Colour in the Films of the Cultural Revolution Model Works

Chris Berry (University of London)

主题发言:《反思“一片红”:文革样板戏电影的色彩》

裴开瑞(伦敦大学)

17:00 Reception and Opening Remarks 招待会及欢迎辞

18:15 Bus departure to screening site

19:00 Screening: 斩经堂、杜鹃山                           

June 15, Friday 星期五

9:30 Roundtable  圆桌讨论

Moderator: Zhao Jingbo (National Academy of Chinese Theater Arts–NACTA)

主持人:赵景勃(中国戏曲学院)

Xiao Lang 肖朗

Yang Chunxia 杨春霞

Rao Shuguang 饶曙光

Yang Jiandong 杨建东

11:30 Lunch 

12:30-14:30 Panel 1: Theorizing opera film 戏曲电影的理论思考

Moderator: Fu Jin (National Academy of Chinese Theater Arts–NACTA)

主持人:傅谨 (中国戏曲学院)

Zhao Jingbo (National Academy of Chinese Theater Arts–NACTA)

《因戏制宜 一片一格:谈戏曲影片的拍摄》

赵景勃(中国戏曲学院)

Explorations in the Ontology of Opera Film

Jia Zhigang (Chinese National Academy of Arts)

《戏曲电影本体性探索》

贾志刚(中国艺术研究院)

On Opera Film

Lan Fan (Shanghai University)

《戏曲片论》

蓝凡(上海大学影视艺术技术学院)

Beijing Opera and Opera Film

Su Donghua (NACTA)

《京剧与戏曲电影》

苏东花(中国戏曲学院)

14:30-14:45 Coffee break 茶歇

14:45-16:45 Panel 2: Music, Opera, Film 音乐,戏曲,电影

Moderator: Judith Zeitlin (University of Chicago)

主持人:蔡九迪(芝加哥大学)

The Dissemination of Opera Film—The Relation between Huangmei Opera, Cantonese Yue Opera, and Hong Kong Huangmei Diao Film.”

Wang Anqi (Taiwan University)

《戏曲电影片的传播功能───黃梅戏、越剧与香港黃梅调电影的关系》

王安祈 (台湾大学),

Under a Glass Bell: Representing Attention on the Operatic Stage

Giorgio Biancorosso (University of Hong Kong)

《玻璃钟下:在歌剧舞台上再现注意力》

白诺信(香港大学)

Sound out of Shadow: Operatic Music and Songs as Narrative Structure/Motif in Non-operatic Films

Du Wenwei (Vassar College)

《戏曲音乐与唱段作为非戏曲故事片中的叙事模式与音乐主题》

都文伟(美国凡萨大学)

17:30 Dinner at Yanshan Hotel Buffet (organized by NACTA)

18:45 Bus departure to screening site

19:30 Screening: 还魂记、坐宫

June 16, Saturday 星期六

8:30-10:30 Panel 3: Aesthetics and Politics戏曲电影与政治气候

Moderator: Paola Iovene (University of Chicago)

主持人:叶纹(芝加哥大学)

Spoken Drama, Cantonese Yue Opera, Politics: A Study of the Cantonese Opera Film Guan Hanqing

Hai Zhen (NACTA)

《话剧•粤剧•政治:粤剧电影〈关汉卿〉研究》

海震(中国戏曲学院)

Commercializing Revolution and Patriotism:  The Leftist Repackaging of the PRC Opera Film in1950s-1960s Hong Kong

Kwok-wai Hui (University of Chicago)

《推銷革命和愛國主義:五、六十年代香港左派對新中國戲曲電影的包裝》

許國惠(芝加哥大学)

Innovation and Cultural Revolution model opera films: Boulder Bay (Panshiwan)

Paul Clark (Asian Studies, University of Auckland, New Zealand),

《创新和文革样板戏:〈磐石湾〉 》

康浩(奥克兰大学, 新西兰)

10:30-10:45 Coffee Break 茶歇

10:45-12:45 Panel 4:Remediating the stage 舞台的再媒体化

Moderator: Sai-shing Yung (Singapore University)

主持人: 容世诚(新加坡国立大学中文系)

On the Functions of Opera Film and Television

Zhou Huabin (Communication University of China)

《戏曲影视功能谈》

周华斌(中国传媒大学)

Chinese Opera Films of the Seventeen Years: Reform, Domination, Resistance

Gao Xiaojian (Chinese National Academy of Art)

《十七年戏曲电影的文化改造、兼容与博弈》

高小健(中国艺术研究院)

In What Kind of Mise-en-scene Do We Situate the Actor?

Zheng Dasheng (Shanghai Film Group)

《把人安放在什么样的景里?》

郑大圣(上海电影集团)

12:45-13:45 Lunch 午餐

13:45-15:45 Panel 5:Opera within Cinema 戏中戏,影中戏

Moderator: Dong Xinyu (University of Chicago)

主持人: 董新宇(芝加哥大学)

Two Stars: Opera and Film in China during the Early Sound Era

Kristine Harris (State University of NY, New Paltz)

《〈银汉双星〉:戏曲与电影在中国早期声片时期》

贺瑞晴(纽约州立大学)

Thoughts on the Making of “Opera Star Films”

Pan Peicheng  (NACTA),

《关于“戏曲人物”电影创作的思考》

潘培成(中国戏曲学院)

Stage and Life on the Silver Screen: On Two Backstage Films about Chinese Opera Performers

Zhong Dafeng (Beijing Film Academy),

《银幕上的舞台与人生:从两部戏曲艺人生活题材影片说起》

钟大丰(北京电影学院)

15:45-16:00 Coffee Break 茶歇

16:00-18:00 Panel 6: Sinophone Opera Films in Southeast Asia 东南亚华语戏曲电影

Moderator: Gao Xiaojian (Chinese National Academy of Art)

主持人:高小健 (中国艺术研究院)

The Sorrows of the Purple Hairpin: Operatic Afterlives of Tang Disheng

Kenny Ng (Hong Kong University of Science & Technology)

《紫釵遺恨:唐滌生的戲曲藝術世界》

吳國坤(香港科技大學)

Shaw Brother’s Huangmeidiao Opera Films: Their Narrative Discourse, Aesthetic Style, and Cultural Value

Zhang Shujin (NACTA)

《邵氏黄梅调电影叙事话语、美学风格与文化价值研究》

张蜀津(中国戏曲学院)

Chaozhao Opera Films and the Hong Kong Film Industry (1955-1965)

Sai-shing Yung (Singapore University)

《韩江梨园,三地互动:潮语戏曲片与香港电影工业(1955-1965)》

容世诚(新加坡国立大学中文系)

Biography Sketches
Chris Berry

Dr. Chris Berry is the Professor of Film and Television Studies and Co-Director of the Goldsmiths Leverhulme Media Research Centre. His work centres on Chinese cinemas (including those of the People’s Republic, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and diasporic China). It has also extended to cover Chinese television, Chinese independent video documentary, Chinese new media and computer-mediated communication, Korean cinema, queer Asian cinema, and more. His interests include cinema’s role in the production of national, transnational, and local cultures and identities, and the connection between cinematic forms and socio-political developments, for example the connection of realism and melodrama to modernity, or the development of Chinese television and independent documentary and the expansion of public discourse.

Giorgio Biancorosso
Giorgio Biancorosso teaches music and film studies at The University of Hong Kong, where he is Associate Professor in the School of Humanities. He has published extensively on film music, sound, and musical aesthetics, and is currently completing the monograph “”Musical Aesthetics through Cinema”” (Oxford University Press). Biancorosso is also active as a writer and lecturer for the general audience, and is a member of the Programme Committee of the Hong Kong Arts Festival.

Paul Clark
Paul Clark is Professor of Chinese at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. His Harvard doctoral thesis was on the Chinese film industry from 1949 to the early 1980s and was the first scholarly study on Chinese film history in English. He has published books on the Fifth Generation filmmakers, a cultural history of the Cultural Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 2008) and on Chinese youth culture in 1968, 1988 and 2008 (Cambridge University Press, 2012). His current project is a history of leisure in Beijing since 1949.

Xinyu Dong
Xinyu Dong is an Assistant Professor of the Department of Cinema and Media Studies and the College. She received a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 2009 and a PhD from Beijing Normal University in 1999. Her research and teaching interests include Chinese-language cinemas, early cinema, comedy, film exhibition and spectatorship, play theory, and global and regional (East Asian) image exchange. She has numerous publications and presentations in her areas of study, including “Meeting of the Eyes: Invented Gesture, Cinematic Choreography, and Mei Lanfang’s Kun Opera Film,” in The Opera Quarterly, “The Laborer at Play: Laborer’s Love, the Operational Aesthetic, and the Comedy of Inventions,” in Modern Chinese Literature and Culture.

都文伟
都文伟教授任教于美国凡萨(Vassar)大学,从事比较文学、中国电影、戏曲、语言和文化的教学。长期用中英文在东西方比较戏剧与中国戏曲、电影与曲艺领域内发表专著与论文,与他在本次戏曲电影学术会议上发言的内容有关的著作包括“戏和影戏:戏曲与电影的互为影响(Xi and Yingxi: The Interaction between Traditional Theatre and Chinese Cinema )”, “银幕上的语声:官话与方言作为公众与私下的象征(Fangyan on Screen: Dialects vs. Mandarin as Private vs. Public)” 和 “重写上海:大陆、香港和台湾电影中的沪语”。他最近为写作《影像中的旋律:中国电影的音、声、乐》(Sound Out of ‘Electric Shadow’: The Aural Dimension of Chinese Film)一书而获得George A and Eliza Gardner Howard 学术研究基金奖。

傅谨
傅谨,文学博士。现任中国戏曲学院学术委员会主任、戏曲研究所所长、《戏曲艺术》杂志主编,二级教授;杭州大学中文系文学硕士学位,山东大学中文系文艺学(美学)专业文学博士学位。主要从事中国戏剧理论与批评、现当代戏剧与京剧学研究。曾经主持并完成国家艺术科学“九五”规划课题“二十世纪戏剧改革发展”研究、国家艺术科学“十五”规划课题“中国当代戏剧史”研究,2006年教育部重点研究基地重大项目“我国非物质文化遗产保护中的若干理论与实践”,目前正主持国家艺术科学“十二五”规划课题“京剧通论”研究,北京市哲学社会科学规划重点课题“21世纪初北京戏剧发展研究”,北京市教委专项课题“京剧学学科建设”等项目研究。出版专著和论文集多部,获得诸多奖项。

高小健
高小健,中国艺术研究院研究员、博士生导师。中国电影家协会会员,中国电影评论学会会员。电影学博士。主要专业方向是中国电影史研究和戏曲电影研究,出版著作有《中国戏曲电影史》、《新兴电影:一次划时代的运动》,参与撰写《中国当代电影发展史》、《中国电影史》等著作。撰写发表诸多中国电影、戏曲电影等研究方面的论文及大量影视评论。

海震
海震,现为中国戏曲学院图书馆馆长,教授,硕士研究生导师。兼任中国戏曲学院戏曲文献研究所副所长,中国戏曲音乐学会副会长。毕业于中国艺术研究院,先后获硕士、博士学位。 研究方向: 戏曲音乐理论、戏曲声腔剧种音乐。主要专著及论文有:《戏曲音乐史》获第二届文化部文化艺术科学优秀科研成果奖三等奖,《中国戏剧史图鉴》获第14屆中国图书奖,论文《梆子腔渊源形成辨析》,获第2届中国王国维戏曲论文奖二等奖。论文《西皮腔渊源形成新探》,获第1届中国王国维戏曲论文奖一等奖。

Kristine Harris
Kristine Harris is Associate Professor of History and Asian Studies at the State University of New York at New Paltz. In 2007 and 2009, she also was Visiting Associate Professor in Cinema and Media Studies at the University of Chicago. Her recent writing on Chinese film and cultural history appears in Opera Quarterly: Performance + Theory + History (Spring-Summer 2010), edited by Judith Zeitlin & Paola Iovene; The New Woman International: Representations in Photography and Film from the 1870s through the 1960s, edited by Elizabeth Otto and Vanessa Rocco, with a foreword by Linda Nochlin (University of Michigan Press, 2011); Gender and Chinese Cinema: New Interventions, edited by Mary Ann Doane and Lingzhen Wang (Columbia University Press, forthcoming 2012); Images in History: Pictures and Public Space in Modern China, edited by Christian Henriot and Wen-hsin Yeh (University of California Berkeley Institute for East Asian Studies, forthcoming 2012); and The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas, edited by Carlos Rojas and Eileen Chow (Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2012).

HUI, Kwok-wai (Xu Guohui)
HUI, Kwok-wai (Xu Guohui) is a PhD candidate in the Department of History at the University of Chicago. Her dissertation is entitled “Revolution, Commercialism and Chineseness: Opera Film in Socialist Shanghai and Capitalist-Colonial Hong Kong, 1949-1966.” She received her M.Phil degree in the Division of Humanities at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology with a thesis on Yangbanxi and the politics of the Cultural Revolution. She will be a lecturer at the Hong Kong Institute of Education starting from September.

贾志刚
贾志刚,中国艺术研究院戏曲研究所副所长、研究员、博士研究生导师,中国戏曲导演学会常务副会长。先后获得文学学士、硕士,博士学位,最后毕业院校为中国艺术研究院研究生院。研究方向:戏曲表、导演理论和戏曲社会学。已出版专著[迈向现代的古老戏剧]、[戏曲体验论]、[昆曲表演艺术论]等六部,主编[中国近代戏曲史]三卷本,该书是国家十五重点课题,已于去年正式出版。先后发表学术论文七十多篇,计八十万字。

蓝凡
蓝凡,上海大学教授、著名艺术理论家。现为上海大学艺术传播研究中心主任、硕士生导师。主要研究领域:艺术史论。蓝凡教授曾主持完成全国艺术科学国家重点项目及省部级项目多项,现主持全国艺术科学重点项目、上海市教委社科项目各1项及横向项目多项。先后出版专著(主编)数十部,发表论文数十篇。蓝凡教授曾获全国艺术科学成果一等奖1项、国家图书奖一等奖1项、中宣部“五个一工程”奖1项,多次获市社科和出版成果奖。

Paola Iovene
Paola Iovene, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in Chinese Literature, East Asian Languages and Civilizations. Her teaching and research interests include Twentieth-century Chinese literature, cinema, and criticism; literary and critical theory; intersections of cultural production and social action; translation; documentary film. She has numerous publications and presentations in her areas of study, including Chinese Operas on Stage and Screen: A Short Introduction, Phony Phoenixes: Comedy, Protest, and Marginality in Postwar Shangha.

Kenny Ng
Kenny Ng is a research assistant professor of the humanities at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He teaches film and comparative literature with a focus on the greater China region. He is currently finishing a book on modern Chinese fiction and historical imagination. His upcoming project is dealing with Chinese cinema in the Cold War period and East-West cultural relations.

潘培成
潘培成,中国戏曲学院导演系教授。 现主要从事戏曲电影创作研究,电影剪辑教学与研究等。导演作品曾获省部级一等奖。出版专著《导演创作轨迹》;发表论文《经典的经典——读戏曲电影》、《戏曲电影创作得失谈》等。

饶曙光
饶曙光,中国电影资料馆副馆长、中国电影艺术研究中心副主任,研究员(二级教授);中国电影艺术研究中心学术委员会常务副主任兼秘书长,博士生导师。主要研究领域为电影美学、中国电影史、当代中国电影电视、影视与大众文化等。在全国各大报刊上发表了300多篇文章,共200多万字。出版了多部译著和专著,承担并完成过多项国家社会科学基金项目及国家广电总局部级社科项目。现承担国家广电总局重大课题《中外合拍片与中国电影全球化战略》,国家社科基金项目《中国类型电影:历史、现状与未来》。

苏东花
苏东花,中国戏曲学院教授,表演系副主任,硕士研究生导师。本科毕业于中国戏曲学院表演系,日本大学大学院艺术学研究所艺术学硕士,博士课程毕业。文化部戏曲电影精品工程艺委会委员,中国广电部戏曲影视兰花奖评委。研究方向:戏曲表演教学创作研究、影视创作实践、理论教学研究及中日韩亚洲戏剧比较学研究。主要学术论文:《梅兰芳戏曲电影创作简论》《京剧男旦与歌舞伎女形艺术》《日本传统戏剧——歌舞伎艺术》《日本戏剧舞台上的奇葩——宝冢》《梅兰芳在东瀛》《尚长荣先生的荀派艺术风格》《戏曲影视表导演基础》《宝冢戏剧》等。

王安祈
王安祈,台湾剧作家及戏曲研究学者,现为台湾大学戏剧学系特聘教授,国光剧团客席艺术总监。王安祈教授为国立台湾大学中国文学系学士、硕士、博士,其学术专长是中国古典戏曲和当代戏曲。曾创作《阎罗梦》(与陈亚先、沈惠如合编)、《三个人儿两盏灯》(与赵雪君合编)、《金锁记》(与赵雪君合编,京剧现代戏,张爱玲原著小说)、《王有道休妻》、《青冢前的对话》、《王子复仇记》、《通济桥》、《陆文龙》等多部京剧剧本,并出版学术专著多本,获国科会杰出学术研究奖,国军文艺金像奖最佳编剧奖(连得4届)、金鼎奖作词奖、教育部文艺创作奖、编剧学会魁星奖、十大杰出女青年、第9届国家文艺奖。

肖朗
肖朗,原名谢克朗,北京电影制片厂国家一级导演,毕业于北京电影制片厂电影学校编导班学习。毕业后任导演助理,副导演,导演。曾担任著名京剧电影《野猪林》场记,后执导《南疆春早》(与郭均合作)《阿凡提》《升官记》《华子良》等观众颇为熟悉的影片。在戏曲电影拍摄方面颇有造诣。

杨春霞
杨春霞,第六届中国戏剧梅花奖得主。初习昆剧旦角,得朱传茗、方传芸传授。后改学京剧,师承言慧珠、杨畹农。赴香港演出神话京剧《白蛇传》、传统京剧《杨门女将》,由于她扮相俊美,演唱动人,反响强烈,受到当地媒体的高度评价。后担任戏曲电影《杜鹃山》主演柯湘,在唱念表演上都有新的发挥,在社会上引起强烈反响。

Judith T. Zeitlin
Judith T. Zeitlin is a professor in Chinese literature and East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago. She earned her Ph.D. in East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the Harvard University. Her areas of interest are Ming-Qing literary and cultural history, with specialties in the classical tale and drama. She is especially interested in combining literary concerns with other disciplines, such as visual and material culture, medicine, performance, music, and film. She has published a lot of books and articles, including The Phantom Heroine: Ghosts and Gender in Seventeenth-Century Chinese Literature, Between Performance, Manuscript, and Print: Imagining the Musical Text in Seventeenth-Century Plays and Songbooks, and “Music and Performance in Palace of Lasting Life” in Trauma and Transcendence in Chinese Literature.

张蜀津
张蜀津,中国戏曲学院戏曲导演系戏曲影视导演专业讲师。毕业于北京电影学院电影学系,获电影历史及理论方向博士学位,研究方向为电影历史及理论。在读书和教学过程中在专业杂志发表论文十余篇,并参与《法国新浪潮》、《大学美育:电影鉴赏指南》等书籍的写作;参与北京市教委重点项目、导演系重点课程建设课题“戏曲影视创作”,完成相关论文2篇,并参与相关课程(戏曲电影赏析)的教学工作;参与北京市教委面上项目“京剧电影研究”;目前正独立承担北京教委社科面上项目“黄梅调电影叙事话语与美学风格初探”。

赵景勃
赵景勃,中国戏曲学院知名教授、著名学者、戏曲教育家。原中国戏曲学院副院长。现任中国京剧研究所所长、北京戏曲家协会副主席。研究方向为戏曲表导演。导演和编写的《五台县令》、《目莲救母》《二堂舍子》、《锦袍情》获得导演奖、文华奖、曹禺文学提名奖。创作的新编京剧《杜十娘》获国家精品工程提名奖。同时担任《中国艺术教育大系·戏曲卷》副主编,并主编、撰写《戏曲角色创造》一书。曾多次担任国家艺术评奖委员。担任中央电视台戏曲节目的的策划、撰稿、讲评等工作。

郑大圣
郑大圣,上海电影集团国家一级导演。本科毕业于上海戏剧学院导演系,研究生毕业于美国芝加哥艺术学院电影制作系。主要作品有获得金鸡百花电影节最佳电视电影奖的《王勃之死》,《古玩》,纪录片《一个农民的导演生涯》,导演的越剧《唐婉》获文化部越剧百年戏剧节金奖,戏曲电影《廉吏于成龙》在2009年获得中国电影华表奖和金鸡奖的优秀戏曲片大奖。2010年为上海世博会中国馆拍摄主题电影《和谐中国》。最新作品为故事片《天津闲人》和《危城》。

周华斌
周华斌,现为中国传媒大学教授、博导、北京文史馆馆员。著名戏剧理论家、艺术理论家,二级教授。三十多年来,周华斌所提出的“大戏剧观”、“文化杂粮”等学术观点为新时期中国戏曲、戏剧的传播、史料考证与美学研究做出了奠基性的卓越贡献。中国传媒大学第一批广播电视艺术学博士生导师之一,研究范围不仅仅是戏剧戏曲专业,还涉及广播、电视、戏曲电影等方向。 刚刚完成了《中国戏曲电影百年史述》的课题研究。

钟大丰
钟大丰,教授,北京电影学院文学系主任。博士研究生、硕士研究生导师。北京师范大学历史系本科毕业。中国艺术研究院研究生部电影系硕士研究生毕业。在进行教学工作的同时也在中国电影史、美国电影、电影理论和传播理论等领域进行科研。尤其是在中国电影研究的领域内,在国内外都产生了较大的影响。曾四次获省部级奖。

Organizers:Judith Zeitlin, Xinyu Dong and Paola Iovene (all Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations) in collaboration with Shanghai University and the National Academy of Chinese Theatre Arts.