Imagining the Sounds of the Early Modern Pipa

All day

Jun.
7

Imagining the Sounds of the Early Modern Pipa:

A Dialogue between History and Practice, Music and Materiality

June 7th, 2015

想象明代琵琶的声音:一次历史与实践,音乐与实物的对话

2015年6月7日

 

Organizers:

Judith T. Zeitlin 蔡九迪,East Asian Languages & Civilizations and Theater & Performance

Studies, Willliam R. Kenan, Jr. Professor, University of Chicago

https://ealc.uchicago.edu/faculty/zeitlin

YAO Chen 姚晨,Associate Professor in Composition, Suzhou University of Music

http://yaochenmusic.com/

LAN Weiwei 兰维薇,Associate Professor in Pipa Performance, Central Conservatory of Music

http://www.erpmusic.com/artists/instrumentalists/lan-weiwei

 

会议组织者:

Judith T. Zeitlin 蔡九迪,芝加哥大学,东亚语言与文明学系、戏剧与表演学系 Willliam R. Kenan, Jr.教授

https://ealc.uchicago.edu/faculty/zeitlin

姚晨(芝加哥大学2012届博士生), 苏州大学音乐学院,作曲副教授http://yaochenmusic.com/

兰维薇,中央音乐学院,琵琶演奏副教授http://www.erpmusic.com/artists/instrumentalists/lan-weiwei

 

Project Narrative

This international, interdisciplinary symposium to be held at the University of Chicago Center in Beijing is part of an innovative multi-year collaborative project on the intersection of scholarship and the arts.

Despite the fact that musicologists hail the early modern period (the Ming-mid-Qing dynasties), as a key moment in the development of the pipa, there is relatively little scholarship on the instrument in this epoch, while the contemporary pipa has been so modified as to be quite a different instrument in crucial respects. The aim of the Beijing symposium is to bring together historians of Chinese literature, material culture, and musicology, with contemporary musicians, composers, and instrument makers to collectively try to imagine the sounds of the early modern pipa. By “imagine” we mean putting into dialogue two approaches usually kept quite separate: reconstruction and revival.  Reconstruction in this context entails pursuing scholarly research methods to investigate how the early modern instrument might have sounded, the symbolism and cultural significance of extant instruments and their decoration, the kinds of repertory played, the relationships between performers and patrons, and the venues and occasions on which the instrument was played. Revival, on the other hand, means enlisting contemporary performers, composers, and instrument makers to recreate the early modern pipa as a sounding object to be experienced in our contemporary world. The symposium will therefore culminate in a recital by co-organizer and pipa virtuoso LAN Weiwei , some of which will be played on a “Ming-style” pipa, inspired an extraordinary late Ming pipa in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. (For images of the instrument, see: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/50.145.74)

The recital will include an expanded version of apiece specifically composed for a “Ming-style” pipa by co-organizer Yao Chen, which had its premiere on Jun 1, 2014 at the Smart Museum of Art in Chicago. This recital will be held in the intimate event space at the University of Chicago Center in Beijing to evoke the “refined gathering (yaji 雅集), one of the most important formats pipa music was experienced in the early modern period.

 

项目简述

蔡九迪、姚晨和兰维薇正在合作计划举办一个为期多年的学术与艺术交叉研究项目,这场在芝加哥大学北京中心举办的国际性跨学科研讨会正是此项目的重要部分。

音乐学家们多称颂明代时期是琵琶发展的关键时刻,然而当代琵琶已经在诸多关键方面被改造成为一个与过去大不相同的乐器,目前关于琵琶在明代时期发展状况的学术研究却少之又少。这次北京研讨会的目的,即在于使中国文学史、物质文化史、音乐史和乐器史方面的学者与当代音乐家和作曲家合作,尝试去想象明代琵琶的声音。在此,“想象”意味着让两种通常分离的方法发生对话:“重构”和“复兴”。在这种语境下,“重构”旨在使用学术研究方法去探讨明代乐器如何发声,现存乐器的象征意义和文化内涵,以及它们的装饰样式,演奏曲目,表演者与赞助者之间的关系,和乐器演奏的场地与场合。“复兴”则旨在使当代表演者、作曲家与乐器制作人通力合作,在我们当下世界重新创造一个可以用来体验的、能发声的早期现代琵琶。因此,研讨会的高潮部分将是由主要组织者之一的琵琶演奏家兰维薇带来的琵琶独奏会,其中部分表演曲目将会使用一把仿明代的琵琶,此灵感来自于在美国纽约大都会博物馆的一把晚明的琵琶。(关于此件乐器的照片,请参考:http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/50.145.74)

独奏会将会包括一部专门为此“明代”琵琶而作的新乐曲。作曲人是主要组织者之一的姚晨。这部作品是在姚晨2014年写的一首两乐章作品 (2014年六月1号首演于芝加哥斯马特美术馆)之上又增加了一个乐章的三乐章作品。这场北京中心的演奏会将在芝加哥大学北京中心举行,意在构筑明清时期体验琵琶艺术的最重要的形式之一——“雅集”。

 

AGENDA

10:00am-11:00am                    Roundtable I.: Playing Opera on the Pipa

Moderator: Jia Guoping

Discussants: Lan Weiwei, Yao Chen, Xiao Xiangping

11:00am-11:15am                                  Snack

11:15am-12:00pm                                  Roundtable II.: Making of Pipa

Moderator: Cao Weidong

Discussants: Fang Suxin and Wang Geng

12:00pm-1:00pm                                 Lunch

(Vegetarian Bento from Tianchu Miaoxiang )

1:00pm-3:00pm                                     Panel I: Recovering the Ming Pipa: Literary and Material

Perspectives

Chair: Xiang Yang

Panelists:

1. Judith Zeitlin, A Ming pipa in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Toward a reconstruction of its literary, historical, and theatrical context
2. Thomas Kelly, Inscriptions on String and Wind Instruments from the Late Ming
3. Tu Chieh-Ming,Exploring the Sounds of the Thirteen Tone Pipa in the Tainan Confucian Temple

3:00pm-3:30pm                                 Snack

3:30pm-6:00pm                      Panel II: Recovering the Ming Pipa: Music and Performance

Chair: Zhang Boyu

Panelists:

1. Yu Siu Wah,The Chinese Plucked lute Pipa: Its Reception in China and the issue of Music Notation
2. Hai Zhen,Pipa, String Instruments and Northern Music: Examining the Pipa from the Perspective of Opera
3. Cheng Hsi-ho,Searching for the Lost Sounds of the Pipa
4. Joseph Lam,Music of Reminiscence: Theory and Practice for Research and Performance of

6:30pm                                                Dinner(Mashi Jiubao, Second floor at Cultural Plaza)

 

 

会议日程

10:00am-11:00am                                  圆桌讨论专题1: 琵琶谈戏

主持人:贾国平

其他主持人:兰维薇,姚晨,肖向平

11:00am-11:15am                                  茶歇

11:15am-12:00pm                                 圆桌讨论专题2: 琵琶的製作—曹卫东

主持人:王耕, 方素心

12:00pm-1:00pm                                  午餐 (素食盒饭)

1:00pm-3:00pm                                    Panel I: 尋找明代琵琶的印記:文學與物質文化

主持人:项阳

1. 蔡九迪,纽约大都会美术馆藏明代琵琶:重构其文学、历史与表演情境

2. 陶明,晚明戏曲管弦伴奏乐器的铭文初探

3. 杜潔明, 從時空交錯的音樂組合探台南孔廟十三音的琵琶音響呈現

3:00pm-3:30pm                                   茶歇

3:30pm-6:00pm                                   Panel II: 重構明代琵琶的聲音:音樂與演奏

主持人:张伯瑜

1. 余少华,琵琶在中國的接受及其樂譜的應用

2. 海震, 琵琶、弦索及北曲——从戏曲角度对明代琵琶的观察

3. 郑溪和,尋找琵琶失落聲音的幾個方向

4. 林萃青,怀古音乐:中国古代音乐的21世纪研究与演出理论和实践

 

6:30pm                                                晚餐 (马仕玖煲,文化大厦二层)

 

琵琶弹戏: 西厢记三折  2014-2015 姚晨作品

——为琵琶, 昆生,昆旦而作

 

主要主持人:贾国平教授

其他主持人:兰维薇,姚晨,肖向平

乐曲背景:

琵琶因为其右手丰富的弹挑扫拂和左手细腻多变的推拉吟揉,可能是最能表现和演绎“情”的中国乐器——不管是才子佳人的情爱,还是将相武士的铁血丹心。 作为一个有情的乐器,琴弦就是心弦, 弹挑吟揉则撩动了心弦。

 

作品的灵感来自于在纽约大都会博物馆珍藏的一把明代琵琶。 在这把琵琶的缚弦上,雕刻了一幅王实甫西厢记中的“遊殿奇逢”。我立刻想到用琵琶弹唱说戏的形式来创作这个作品。 作品的前两折“惊艳”和“琴心”是由芝加哥大学Judith Zeitlin教授和芝加哥斯马特艺术馆联合委约的,2014年6月1日由琵琶演奏家兰维薇在芝加哥斯马特艺术馆首演。兰维薇在演奏琵琶的同时亲自开嗓演绎了张生与崔莺莺二角。2015年五月我添写了第三折“长亭”并邀请了苏州昆剧院的吕佳和北方昆曲剧院的萧向平加入这场2015年6月6日在北京的实景剧场“琵琶弹戏: 西厢记三折”。

 

“惊艳”来自第一本 “张君瑞闹道场”,“琴心” 来自第二本 “崔莺莺夜听琴”。“长亭” 则来自第四本“草桥店梦莺莺”。“惊艳“这一折用明代4相12品琵琶与昆生来演绎张生游普救寺奇逢崔莺莺美貌时的情开心动;“琴心”这一折则用6相24品的当代琵琶与昆旦来演绎崔莺莺深夜被张生的琴声撩动心绪,倾吐其爱慕情愁。 “长亭”又重新用回气沉音沱的明代琵琶与昆生旦一起来讲述崔莺莺十里长亭送张生进京赶考凄美哽咽的别离场景,恋人短暂的欢愉后即将饱尝别离相思。

 

可涉及的讨论主题:

1. 琵琶与中国传统说唱,昆曲。

2. 音乐的结构与文本

3. 仿明琵琶的声音与运用

4. 形式的 探索与生命力

5. 现代性与新古典主义

Cao Weidong, Chinese instrument maker and repairer of antique instruments, specializing in stringed instruments, especially the pipa

曹卫东,中国乐器制造师、古乐器修复师、尤其擅长琵琶等弦乐

Cao Weidong, a master craftsman of Chinese musical instruments, graduated with honors from the Beijing Instrument-Making School in 1987, and immediately entered the Chinese stringed instrument division of the Beijing Musical Instrument Factory. During this time, he also studied with several famous elder craftsmen, such as Man Duanxing, Sun Qingtang, and Zhang Shouyi, who specialized in making pipa, guqin (zither), and huqin (fiddle). Cao eventually developed his own distinct style as an instrument maker and is especially renowned for his artistry as a pipa maker. His pipa have won first prize in many national competitions for Chinese musical instrument makers. In recent years, he has devoted himself to researching and replicating antique musical instruments, including the five-string, straight-necked Tang dynasty pipa, the bent-neck Tang dynasty pipa, the Yuan dynasty swallow-tail style pipa, and an adaptation of the Ming dynasty phoenix-tail style pipa.  For their beautiful appearance, timbre, and stage quality, his replicas have received acclaim from pipa performers and audiences alike. The Ming-style pipa played in today’s recital is his design and handiwork.

曹卫东:琵琶制作传承人,民族弹拨乐器制作名师,中国音乐家协会琵琶学会理事,中国民族管弦乐学会乐器制作委员会理事。1987年毕业于北京乐器制作学校,在校期间系统的学习了乐器的设计、制作,以及音乐理论知识与乐器的演奏。毕业后进入北京民族乐器厂,师从于我国著名琵琶制作大师满瑞兴先生继续学习琵琶、柳琴等弹拨乐器的制作。后又拜制琴名师张守义先生、孙庆堂先生学习胡琴、古筝及古琴的制作。

曹卫东先生于1992年成立了自己的乐器制作工作室,在此期间与著名的琵琶演奏家、教育家李光华、吴玉霞、方锦龙、杨靖、张强、陈音、蒋婉求等多位名家合作在琵琶的制作上,音色、音质及演奏手感、均衡性等多方面进行了多方位的、细致的实践 ,得到多位演奏家、音乐家的支持,使其琵琶的制作工艺与发声音效更加完善、科学、精湛,从而形成了独有的形制与曹氏制琴风格。北京电视台曾对曹卫东先生进行了专访及历时两年的跟踪拍摄,并制作了电视纪录片《全家福—琵琶行》,部分省电台、电视台也相继进行了报道。

由于其工艺与音质的不断精进与稳定性的保障,曹氏琵琶被国内外众多的琵琶演奏家作为指定用琴在众多场的音乐会上使用,均获得好评。在此期间,与中国音乐学院杨靖教授共同研发了高音琵琶、低音琵琶。与五弦琵琶领军人物方锦龙先生合作研制现代五弦琵琶。与中央民族乐团副团长、著名的琵琶演奏家吴玉霞女士一起开发的古式琵琶,稳重的样式、古典的韵味,即富有古代琵琶的风格,又包含了现代音乐元素,所制作的琵琶,一出现就受到了大家的关注,并于2013年03月在国家大剧院由吴玉霞女士进行了首演。与中国广播艺术团琵琶首席陈音先生合作,根据其创作的曲目《山之舞》《西风词》,按其创作思想、曲风、意境与演奏技巧结合制作出山之舞、西风词琵琶,来配合乐曲的完美展现。2013年创作的燕尾古式琵琶,被美国芝加哥大学蔡龙迪教授立项研究,并由中央音乐学院青年琵琶教师兰维薇于2014年06月01日在芝加哥大学斯玛特美术馆,“兰维薇琵琶独奏音乐会”中使用曹制明式琵琶首演作曲家姚晨专为音乐会和该琵琶而作的《琵琶弹戏—西厢记两折:惊艳》,受到了国内外观众的一致称赞。

曹卫东先生在制琴工艺与木材的处理上经过不断研究尝试,取得了众多突破,所制作的琵琶被越来越多的演奏家所使用、众多的音乐爱好者、琵琶发烧友视其为珍品来订制、鉴赏、收藏。

Tu Chieh-ming/ Du Jieming, pipa performer, Director, Tainan Confucius Temple Cultural Foundation; Head and Music Director, “Tainan music collection”; Teacher, Department of Chinese Music, Tainan National University of the Arts; Music Teacher, Department of Music , Tainan University of Technology

杜洁明, 琵琶演奏家,台南市孔庙文化基金会董事,“台南乐集”团长及音乐总监兼台湾

国立台南艺术大学中国音乐学系兼任琵琶教师台南应用科技大学音乐系兼任音乐教师

Tu Chieh-Ming, a pipa virtuoso and an educator, Tainan Taiwan born on January 3, 1958, received his Bachelor’s Degree in Pipa performance from the Chinese music group under Music Department at Chinese Culture University, and got his Master’s Degree from graduate institute of Aesthetic and Art Management at Nan Hua University, was one of the first generation of professional performers cultivated by university system of Taiwan, studying pipa under Cheng Si-Sun and Lin Ku-Fang. Since 1990, Tu went to Beijing for learning and further studying the arts of Pipa schools under Wang Fan-De and Lin Shi-Cheng. From 1986, Tu continually held seven recitals, including the “Lingering Aroma of the Strings.” Absorbing in folk music of Taiwan since his early age, Tu not only contributed himself into instruction of pipa performance, promotion of Chinese music but also into conservation of traditional Taiwan music. At the aspect of academic research, he has published many papers concerning related topics, such as The Phenomena of Instruction in Traditional Instruments in Taiwan, Research of Music Bureau in Tainan Confucius Temple ─Yi Cheng Classical Learning Academy, Study on Backstage Music of Taiwanese Traditional Shadow Puppet Drama, Comparison between Beiguan Xianpu and ShiSan Yin. In March 2014, he founded Tainan Musical Ensemble and served as general as well as music director. Tu was commissioned as president of Tainan Society for Ethnomusicology, now serving as director of Tainan Confucian Temple Cultural Foundation, musical leader and executive director of Yi Cheng Classical Learning Academy, and currently teaches at Chinese Music department of National Tainan University of Arts, and Music department of Tainan University of Technology etc.

琵琶演奏家、教育家,1958年1月3日生,台灣台南市人,文化大學音樂系國樂組畢業,主修琵琶,為台灣第一批大學培養之專業演奏家,南華大學美學與藝術管理碩士,琵琶授業於鄭思森與林谷芳,1990年起赴北京隨王范地、林石城老師學習,鑽研琵琶的流派藝術,從1986年起陸續舉辦了《絃上猶自餘風韻》等七場琵琶獨奏音樂會,少時即接觸民間音樂,畢生戮力於琵琶教學演奏與國樂推廣,在學術研究方面發表了《台灣傳統器樂教學的現象探討》、《台南孔廟以成書院之研究》、《台灣傳統皮影戲後場音樂研究》、《北管絃譜與十三音的比較初探》等論文,2014年3月成立《台南樂集》,擔任團長與音樂總監,曾任台南市民族音樂學會理事長、搖籃唱片公司音樂製作,現任財團法人台南孔廟文化基金會董事、以成書院樂長與常務理事,任教於國立台南藝術大學中國音樂學系、台南應用科技大學音樂系等校。

 

 

ABSTRACT:

 

Exploring the Sounds of the Thirteen Tone Pipa in the Tainan Confucian Temple

 

The Confucian Temple, from the era of Dong Zhongshu onwards, has become both a revered cultural totem among the educated and a major cultural symbol for the rulers of successive dynasties. The Confucian Temple in Tainan as the most highly esteemed in Taiwan bears witness to how under the cultural symbolism, political leaders have both entice and win over intellectuals. During the era of the civil service examinations, this institution was not only a school but was also the setting for exams, and most importantly it is a “life-line” that can transform commoners into ministers.

The performance of ritual, seen from the outside is based on music, but the core of music is based on ritual. This is the two-sided nature of the ritual-music of liyue system. The system governs the entire Confucian ritual program; therefore, the department that executes the rituals, the office of ritual music (liyue ju), is a necessary part of any Confucian temple. However, among the many Confucian temples in Taiwan, only the temple in Tainan has an office of ritual music, which is instead called an academy (shuyuan).

As the civil service examinations were abolished, the academy, which was initially only accessible to graduates, slowly became a place where local gentry, merchants and itinerant peddlers were able to congregate. Therefore, the sanctity of the academy gradually waned. While this might have led to a degree of cultural antagonism between different social groups, in the music troupe there are different musicians from different musical lineages and systems. Therefore we can see how elite music and folk music became intermixed.

Whether the transformation of the “musical office” (yueju) was influenced by politics needs to be further addressed. Since Ming Zhenghe times when the yueju was established by Chen Yonghua in 1665, the nature of the yueju, which once belonged to the Confucian temple changed over the course of time. It is responsible for the ritual music of the Confucian sacrifice program and yet it has already become a society for folk music, switching between the sacred and the secular.

In Han culture, traditional folk sizhu music reflects the lives of the daily people and among the types of music that have been defined as traditional, we see no records of the thirteen tones. Yet we can find information on the thirteen tones in the lively records of the past hundred years of the academy. It is the product of immigrant culture and yet from the perspective of local Taiwanese it can be called the classical music of Taiwan. The musical instruments come from different times and spaces and this mixture presents a distinct type of beauty in the sound of the music. The Qing dynasty folk pipa was confined through its construction to the thirteen tones, yet how was it able to break through these confinements. The writer, as someone who has been a musician at the academy for more than a decade, will want to discuss how a traditional folk music society consisting of different types of musicians, evolved over a hundred years under the culture of Confucianism.

 

摘要:

 

從時空交錯的音樂組合探台南孔廟十三音的美學呈現

 

關鍵詞:台南孔廟 以成書院 十三音

孔廟,從董仲舒獨尊儒術後,成為讀書人進供與膜拜的文化圖騰,在每一個朝代成為統治者的文化符號。台南孔廟,以其全台首學之尊,看盡統治者在此一文化符號的命定下,對知識分子的籠絡,在科舉年代,他不僅僅是學校,是科考之處,更大的意義,是一種可以使布衣成為卿相的生命轉換。

禮的表現,行之於外為樂,而樂的本質又為禮,這一體兩面的禮樂系統,主宰整個祭孔儀式,是故祭典的禮樂機構-禮樂局,是每一個孔廟所必備的,然在台灣眾多的孔廟中,獨台南孔廟設有禮樂局,而以書院的名稱代之。

隨著科舉的廢除,原本僅容秀才才可以參加的以成書院樂局,漸漸有了地方仕紳、商賈,甚至販夫走卒的參與,書院的神聖性不復存在,其必然產生不同階層的文化排斥,而在樂班中,來自不同樂種系統的樂人相融於樂班中,祭典雅樂與民間俗樂的並行為台灣僅見。

台南孔廟在橫移的過程中,樂局的變遷是否受到政治力的干預,從明鄭時期陳永華(1665)建廟至今,原附屬於孔廟的以成書院樂局,在變遷中改變了生態,時至今日,以成書院除了擔負祭孔大典的禮樂部分,已是一個純粹的民間樂社,神聖性與世俗性的轉換,是值得探討之處。

在漢文化中,傳統的民間絲竹一直反映著常民的生活,在已被定論的傳統音樂的樂種中,不見”十三音”的記載,而它卻已鮮活地存在以成書院百餘年,是移民文化下的產物,以台灣本土的觀點來看,可稱為”台灣的古典音樂”,其所用的樂器來自不同的時空,古今摻雜而呈現另類的型制與音響之美,清代民間琵琶在十三音中因其型制之故,如何在其受限的音量中翻轉突破,筆者以一參與以成書院數十年之樂生,探討一個傳統民間樂社由不同掌樂者在儒教文化下運行百餘年的音樂演化。

Fang Suxin, Founders, Suxin Silk Strings, a firm that has revived traditional Chinese methods of manufacturing silk strings for guqin and pipa

方素心, 传统丝弦制造者,素心丝弦公司

Ms Suxin Fang, a lay Buddhist, founder of Suxin Silk Strings. She is world’s only ice silk string maker.

Suxin Fang is the only silk string maker that restored the entire process of traditional silk string making, from choosing the right cocoon to making the strings. Ice silk string has been discontinued for almost a hundred years and Suxin Silk strings totally matched the description of this best historical silk strings: smooth, translucent, high tension, tough. Suxin Silk Strings is widely acclaimed from guqin experts and qin players around the world and is considered to be of the highest quality in history. Some great qin masters begins to play Suxin Silk Strings and the strings are sold worldwide.

Silk strings, handmade by Ms Fang, has been on display or collected in museums in the world, such as Beijing Capital Museum, MIM – Musical Instrument Museum in Arizona, etc. After Ms Fang restored the ice silk string, she built world’s only custom-made silk string studio, according to a very old fashion in Chinese music history “custom strings for custom instruments”. She made custom silk strings for famous musical instruments such as guqin, pipa, erhu and various kinds of ethno-musical instruments. Suxin Silk Strings made great contribution for reforming Chinese historical music, which has over three-thousand-year history. It will significantly go down in music history of world’s stringed instrument.

方素心,居士,素心丝弦创始人,蚕丝冰弦的唯一生产者,曾从事金融、教育行业。

方素心是目前唯一从蚕茧到成弦都完整恢复古制丝弦流程的制弦人,所制蚕丝琴弦,达到了老一辈琴人描述的“平滑,半透明,高张力,不易断”的失传近百年的顶级丝弦品质。投放市场以来,受到国内外一线琴家的一致肯定,被认为是现今唯一能达到历史上最优丝弦品质的蚕丝冰弦。一些知名琴家已开始长年使用,产品行销世界各地。

方素心亲手制作的丝弦,已被中国首都博物馆,美国亚利桑那世界乐器博物馆等全世界多家博物馆收藏,展出。素心居士还创建了世界唯一的丝弦订制工作室,专为各国名家名琴配制各种弦乐器丝弦,为重现三千年的音乐历史风貌做出了巨大贡献,即将在世界弦乐史画下浓墨重彩的一笔。

Wang Geng, Founders, Suxin Silk Strings, a firm that has revived traditional Chinese methods of manufacturing silk strings for guqin and pipa

王耕, 传统丝弦制造者,素心丝弦公司

Geng Wang, musician, multi-instrumentalist. Geng studied physics in his Bachelor and PhD, and plays piano, guqin and flute professionally. He was the editor of non-profit guqin organization “Chinese Guqin Newspaper” for years. Geng joined the later period of Suxin Silk Strings research and he gave theoretical support and collected rare information for strings around the world. Geng, along with Ms Fang, successfully restored the highest quality silk strings – ice string, the third generation Suxin Silk strings. He is the core member of Suxin Silk Strings.

王耕,音乐人,多乐器演奏者,于学士与博士学位时攻读物理专业,精通钢琴、古琴、长笛等多种乐器,曾多年为公益机构《中国古琴报》担当编辑。王耕在素心丝弦的后期研发中,提供了理论支持和世界范围内的信息集成,与素心居士一起研发出了具有代表意义的完全恢复古法蚕丝冰弦的第三代素心丝弦,是素心丝弦团队的核心成员。

 

ABSTRACT:

 

The traditional manufacturing of silk strings

 

Throughout history, almost all musical instruments have periodically been adapted and developed. In the two to three thousand-year history of the qin, however, the strings have only once been comprehensively altered. In the twentieth century, silk or sheep innards strings were replaced by nylon metal strings. Chinese literati and musicians lamented the loss of silk strings not only for their rich cultural heritage, but also for their superior tone. Silk strings were perceived as more harmonious and as fulfilling the “union of man and nature,” a central precept in traditional Chinese aesthetics.

Historically, the best silk strings were made during the Ming dynasty. Li Shiying made silk strings named “ice strings,” which were identified as an imperial tribute. From the closure of companies in the first half of the twentieth century until now, only Suxin Silk Strings has produced strings of a quality that comes close to Ming dynasty ice strings. During our talk, we will discuss the distinctive manufacturing process and physical properties of our recovered silk strings.

 

摘要:

 

传统丝弦制造者

 

乐器史中,几乎所有的乐器都在随时代而不断改变,进化。但琴弦在两三千年中只发生了一次全面的改变,在二十世纪上叶由蚕丝/羊肠改为尼龙钢丝。中国的文人与音乐家,都在不约而同地叹息优质丝弦的失传,因为其不仅承载了丰厚的中华文化遗产,而是在音色上远远优于尼龙钢丝弦,更合人性,更为天地人合一。

历史上制作丝弦的高峰在明代。明代李世英生产丝弦, 所造的弦叫‘冰弦’, 指定为内府贡品。在二十世纪上半叶关门倒闭后至今,只有素心一家做出了接近明代丝弦品质的蚕丝冰弦。在我们的演讲中,我们会讲述蚕丝琴弦的制作与物理特性。

Hai Zhen, Chinese ethnomusicology, National Academy of Chinese Theatre

海震, 中国民族音乐学家,中国戏曲学院

Hai Zhen is Professor in the Department for Music at the National Academy of Chinese Theater Arts. He is the Head of the Academy Library and Deputy Director of the Academic Committee. He graduated from the graduate school of the Chinese Academy of Arts with both MA and PhD. He has been a visiting professor at the Chinese Department of Taiwan National Central University and has been a visiting scholar at the Institute for Literature and Philosophy at Academica Sinica in Taiwan. He was also been a visiting scholar at the Center for Chinese Studies at Michigan University in the United States. His main research interests include the history of opera music, operatic melodies and musical styles, and trans-cultural theater. He is the author of “A History of Operatic Music” and has translated “An Illustrated History of Chinese Theater.”

中国戏曲学院音乐系教授,校图书馆馆长、学术委员会副主任。毕业于中国艺术研究院研究生部,先后获硕士、博士学位。曾为台湾中央大学中文系客座教授,台湾中央研究院中国文哲所访问学人,美国密西根大学中国研究中心访问学者。主要研究领域为:戏曲音乐史论、戏曲声腔剧种及跨文化戏剧。著有《戏曲音乐史》等著作,译有《中国戏剧史图鉴》。

 

ABSTRACT:

Pipa, String Instruments and Northern Music:

Examining the Pipa from the Perspective of Opera

 

In his History of Chinese Traditional Music, the distinguished scholar Yang Yinliu offers a succinct discussion of the pipa, string instruments and their relationship to Northern Music (beiqu) in the Ming dynasty. However, a more comprehensive analysis needs to go further in examining issues related to contemporary operatic performance.

In the Yuan dynasty, the pipa was the most important instrument for the accompaniment of Northern songs and sanqu. Sun Xuanling has discussed in some detail the records in the “Collection of the Blue Bowers” and descriptions in Yuan sanqu in his study, “Music of Yuan sanqu.” It seems as if the pipa was infrequently used as accompaniment for the performance of Yuan variety plays (zaju), but there are images of pipa players in painted murals of Yuan dynasty zaju troupes. Issues related to this topic await further research.     

The pipa proved to be the main accompaniment instrument for Northern Music in the Ming dynasty. There is information on the performance of Ming dynasty northern songs among the historical materials on opera. However, the analysis of materials on Ming dynasty accompaniment for northern song in Yang Yinliu’s History of Chinese Traditional Music is constrained by the conditions of the overtly political environment of the 60s and 70s. A more comprehensive understanding of the circumstances surrounding Ming dynasty northern musical accompaniment must proceed from a deeper analysis of related historical materials on performance content, form, and location.

The use of instruments as accompaniment for operatic performance was not just an issue of music; it was also closely related to issues regarding the form of the sung performance and the space for performance. For instance, Yuan zaju made use of flutes, drums, and clappers as accompaniment, while the sung performance of Yuan sanqu relied on the pipa and other strummed instruments and did not necessarily make use of clappers. These are clear examples of this problem.

Ming literati tend to offer quite general statements in their discussions of instrumentation used as accompaniment for southern and northern sung performance. For instance: “the strength of the north lies in strings, the strength of the south is the clapper.” Examined from the perspective of music, it is easy to see the vague nature of such rhetoric. In actuality, the relationship of the pipa and other accompaniment instruments to northern music was not so much an issue of northern or southern music as it was a matter of singing style, sung content and performance location.

In the mid- and late- Ming dynasty the use of the sanxian (three-stringed lute) became increasingly important. The term “string instrumentation” in historical materials starts to refer predominantly to the sanxian. This becomes particularly the case with accompaniment for Southern Music and Kunqu. The emergence of a “string instrument mode” (xiansuo diao) seems to be a turning point. Lu Yingkun has an article that discusses in depth this “string instrument mode.” Later on, singers of short songs use pipa and sanxian together, yet regional divergences become more apparent. 

How can we see the history behind textual sources and images? This is a major challenge for researchers and is also one of the objectives of historical research. Even research on traditional instruments and musical notation is like this. How can we pass from musical instruments and notation to research the history of music? This is not an easily managed task for the researcher of musical history and methods, approaches and concepts all await deeper investigation.

 

摘要:

琵琶、弦索及北曲

——从戏曲角度对明代琵琶的观察

一、已有研究成果分析

著名中国音乐史家杨荫浏在《中国古代音乐史稿》中对琵琶、弦索及明代的北曲有精要的论述,但更深入全面的分析和论述还有待展开,需要结合当时的戏曲演出情况对有关问题做进一步考察。

 

二、元代的琵琶与北曲

在元代,琵琶曾是演唱北曲的散曲的重要伴奏乐器。《青楼集》中有记载,元散曲中也有描写,孙玄龄《元散曲音乐》论之甚详。元杂剧的伴奏似少用琵琶,但描绘杂剧演出的壁画中有琵琶弹奏者,有关问题