Project Awards Summary 2019-20

Business, Economics, Law, and Policy

Rural Migrant Ecosystem in Nanjing

This project seeks to understand the policy and organizational infrastructure currently in place that serves rural migrants and their communities in one major city, Nanjing. We call this policy and organizational infrastructure the rural migrant ecosystem. By documenting the spatial distribution, capacities, mission, and purpose of social organizations that support migrants, the level of service integration and fragmentation will become apparent. Project activities include policy and organizational documentation and mapping, in-depth interviews with policy and organizational leaders, and a year-end symposium at the Beijing or Hong Kong Center for the purpose of disseminating preliminary findings, receiving critique and feedback, and developing intellectual connections with key academics working on rural migrant issues. The field research will be based in Nanjing, the capital of one of the largest receiving provinces for migrants in China. This project will serve as foundational research to advance SSA’s ongoing research collaboration with partner institutions in Hong Kong and Mainland China. As such, we are submitting this proposal to both the Beijing Center and the Hong Kong Center with the hope that both centers would be willing to share in the support of project expenses, which is currently over-budget for either center alone.

The principal investigator for this proposal is Colleen Grogan, Professor at the University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration (SSA). Colleen is accompanied by co-investigator from SSA, Robert Chaskin (Professor) and Zhiying Ma (Assistant Professor). They work in collaboration with Liu Neng (Peking University), Ma Fengzhe (Peking University), Daniel Lai (Hong Kong Polytechnic University) and Kaxton Siu (Hong Kong Polytechnic University).

2nd (and 3rd) Chicago-Tsinghua Young Faculty Forum

The 2019 and 2020 Chicago-Tsinghua Young Faculty Forum are slated to be the second and third iterations of what we hope is a multi-year collaboration. The 2018 forum was first of its kind between leading American and Chinese law schools. In 2018, the organizers selected twelve scholars working in the area of law-and-social-science to present work-in-progress. The purpose of the forum is to allow for rigorous and critical discussion in the Chicago “round table” style workshop, to help improve the work, and to set the standards for successful publications. Members from the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School will also join the Forum as discussants, all of whom have rich experience in conducting inter-disciplinary study of law and social science. Together with some top Chinese legal scholars, they will raise questions and comments to the presenters. The Forum also hopes to increase the sense of community among American and Chinese legal scholars generally, particularly among those working in the area of law and social science. To facilitate the round table, there will be no prepared comments by the discussants. Each paper will be presented briefly, followed by an open discussion among the participants.

This Forum is assembled by principal investigator Omri Ben-Shahar, University of Chicago Professor of Law and Kearney Director of the Coase-Sandor Institute for Law and Economics. He works in collaboration with Weixing Shen, Dean and Professor of Law at Tsinghua University.

Does Trust Speak a Native or Foreign Language? Trust and Cooperative Behavior in a Native vs. Foreign Language

Trust is an important component of any interpersonal transaction. It facilitates rapid and efficient economic and social exchanges, and is a prerequisite for productive and meaningful relationships at both the professional and personal level. The goal of this project is to examine one factor that may impact willingness to trust others in interpersonal situations: namely, whether the parties are communicating in their native or foreign language. Prior research has shown that using a foreign language carries less emotional weight and hence changes our choices, but no research has examined how using a foreign language impacts interpersonal decision making between two or more parties. Therefore, we plan to run a series of experiments in the Beijing area examining trust and trustworthiness in interpersonal decision making, specifically recruiting native Mandarin speakers who know English as a second language. This project has the potential to have far-reaching consequences for our understanding of trust and trust formation in different language contexts, which is relevant in an increasingly globalized world. The Principal Investigator is Boaz Keysar, Professor of Psychology at the University of Chicago.

Cities and Urbanization in China Working Group

The Mansueto Cities and Urbanization in China Working Group will bring together scholars and practitioners in the emerging field of sustainable urbanism for an interdisciplinary, 3 day Working Group session at the Center in Beijing, with the goal of fostering collaboration between US and Chinese partners in developing a fundamental knowledge of how cities in the region manage rapid urbanization, including social, economic, and environmental impacts. As the world urbanizes and cities continue to grow in population, geographic size, and energy consumption, we will need to have solutions that grow from shared knowledge of “urban metabolism,” a concept that is understood in different ways by different disciplines. UChicago will lead in the development of this shared knowledge by creating platforms, like the Cities and Urbanization in China Working Group, for the synthesis and cross-fertilization of the work of social scientists, data scientists, ecologists, and engineers. In this case, the working group will focus on sustainable urbanism in China's emerging cities and will draw from a subset of the University of Chicago’s faculty, as well as international experts. The Mansueto Cities and Urbanization in China Working Group will be one of many of these working groups that the Mansueto will convene at UChicago’s global centers; as such, it also will serve as a test case of this approach in pushing disciplinary and cultural boundaries in pursuit of shared knowledge.

Principal investigator of this proposal is Luis Bettencourt, Pritzker Director of the Mansueto Institute for Urban Innovation at the University of Chicago. He works in collaboration with Zhangang Han, Director of the Complexity Science Program at Beijing Normal University, and Dietmar Grimm, President of the Paulson Institute.


Culture, Society, Religion and the Arts

The Cambridge History of Ancient China: Twenty Years On

In 1965, John King Fairbank of Harvard and Denis Twitchett of Cambridge proposed a series of studies of Chinese history to be known as The Cambridge History of China. When the first volume, The Ch’in and Han Empires, 221 BC–AD 220, edited by Twitchett and Michael Loewe, was published over twenty years later, reviews of it uniformly praised its coverage of the two dynasties indicated by the title. In 1991, when Loewe was a visiting professor at the University of Chicago, he and Edward Shaughnessy invited a dozen of the Western world’s leading historians of ancient China to contribute to The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. (New York: Cambridge U. Press, 1999). In the West, this volume has been regarded as a benchmark in the study of ancient China. 2019 will mark the twentieth anniversary of its publication. Not only have these twenty years brought ever more archaeological discoveries, but they have also brought an ever increasing sophistication in their treatment by the most recent generation of scholars in both the West and in China. As the contributors to the book begin to cede their place at the forefront of Western scholarship to the newer generation, this seems to be an opportune moment to bring together these two generations of Western scholars as well as the Chinese scholarly world, both in mainland China and on its periphery, to look critically at the bookand to evaluate the current state of the field.

Principal investigator if Edward Shaughnessy, Professor in Early Chinese Studies in the East Asian Languages and Civilizations Department at the University of Chicago. He is accompanied by collaborator Jie Chen, Professor of the School of History at Nankai University.

Solidarities of the Global South

This project proposes two workshops at the University of Chicago’s Global Centers in Delhi and Beijing in 2020 that will bring together an interdisciplinary group of scholars to establish regional collaborations that develop conversations around solidarities across the Global South. These initial conversations will shape a proposal for a larger Neubauer Collegium project at the University of Chicago campus. The workshops engage decolonial questions within Global South networks to open up dialogues with scholars in South, Southeast and East Asia aimed at decentering a Euro-American epistemological framework.

The project explores the social and political networks that traversed aligned and non-aligned geopolitics, that is, “third world” and “second world” spaces, while critically challenging the disarticulation of specific, local historical, political and economic conditions and the static geopolitical vision that the term Global South might imply. This project thus explores forms of failed and accidental solidarity, as well as nostalgia for solidarity amidst political and economic collapse. Some of our concerns include expressions of solidarity in the form of transnational delegations, congresses, and festivals that constructed social and political spaces, whether events or textual/digital archives, in an attempt to imagine forms of belonging outside, alongside and in relation to the diffuse forces of late capitalism. We will focus on how informal economies and uneven development striated these uncertain and often faltering forms of transnational solidarity, as well as how they shaped conceptions of race and caste, apartheid, and the history of race sciences more broadly.

This research is led by principal investigator Mark Phillip Bradley, Professor of History and co-investigator Leah Feldman, Assistant Professor of the Department of Comparative Literature at the University of Chicago. They work in collaboration with Wang Hui, Director of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences at Tsinghua University, and Prathama Banerjee, Professor of Center for the Study of Developing Societies.

2019 Chinese Tomb Art Conference

Chinese mortuary art possesses the richest archaeological information extending over the longest temporal duration and greatest geographical span of any of the world’s art traditions. As a synthetic visual system, its components include architecture, objects, painting, sculpture, decoration, burial equipment, calligraphy, clothing, and the treatment of the body. Supported by major archeological discoveries in recent decades, the study of ancient Chinese tomb art and material culture has expanded into an international arena. Because of this the Peking University, the Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing, and the Center for the Art of East Asia at the University of Chicago started an important project more than a decade ago to address these cultural materials in a series of international conferences to be held in China. Subjects of research include both general historical trends and specific cases; at the same time, there is strong interest growing in analytical and interpretative methods. The purpose of this conference, like those before it, is to further develop the field through increased scholarly communication and understanding based on evidential research, as well as serious reflection and discussion of analytical methodologies. With the important ongoing archeological excavation of tombs in China, this vital and growing field of study has inspired new multi-disciplinary scholarship that has been stimulated in part by our conferences.

This concert is led by principal investigator Wu Hing, Professor of Art History and Wei-Cheng Li, Associate Professor of Art History at the University of Chicago. They work in collaboration with Zhu Qingsheng, Director of The Center for Visual Studies at Peking University and Zheng Yan, Professor of Humanities Division at the Central Academy for Fine Arts.

The Ideal of the Sage in Chinese and Jewish Thought and Culture

The fourth in a series of conferences co-sponsored by the Beijing Center and the Center for Judaic and Inter-Religious studies at Shandong University, this meeting will focus on the ideal of the sage in Jewish and Chinese Thought and Culture. Notions of the navi’ (prophet), hakham (sage), hasid (pious one), tzaddiq (righteous one), and rav (master, teacher) that emerge from biblical sources and from classical and medieval Jewish rabbinic texts suggest comparisons with the junzi (noble person), the xian (worthy), the sheng (sage), the zhenren (true man), the xian (immortal) cited in texts from Warring States and Han China, all developed and debated in later philosophical literature. The aim of the conference is to explore parallels and differences between the two conceptions and, as an offshoot, to explore whether and how the ideal figure of the sage has been and can be transformed in contemporary Chinese and Jewish culture and thought. Among specific topics to be explored are the distinctive virtues of the sage; the role of tradition and the teacher-disciple relation; attitudes of denial and delight toward the natural world; the sage as ruler and his relation to society; the role of gender in the ideal; and the dangers posed by the sage: cults of personality, sectarianism, authority and authoritarianism, and compromises of the ideal to accommodate temporal power(s). By bringing the Chinese and Jewish intellectual traditions focused on this topic into closer dialogue, we intend to probe broader differences between their respective cultures and values.

The University of Chicago Principal investigators (Josef Stern, Haun Saussy, and Sarah Hammerschlag) collabrote with Fu Youde of Shandong University (Jinan).

Control Art: Contemporary Art and Society in China

Control Art: Contemporary Art and Society in China is a joint program of the Department of Visual Arts and the Smart Museum of Art at the University of Chicago. The course investigates the relationships between forces of community building, aesthetics and social regulation using a selective history of art and art systems associated with the People’s Republic of China as a case study. Using wide-ranging sources, the class considers the question of how contemporary art production has worked hand-in-hand with the development of a modern aesthetic state, analyzing the ways that groups and governments alike have used art to produce new social meaning.

Since 1978, conditions in China have coalesced to produce various artistic forms that have been integrated into society in familiar and also innovative ways. Today in China, political and artistic centers of power that used to be concentrated within political formations have shifted. This has led to thedevelopment of two parallel cultural spheres: a statist space of official government-supported cultural production, and an unofficial sphere of production. This latter space has been connected to rapid economic growth in China, especially the culture industries, land development, commerce, and finance, and provides a fruitful case study for students to engage.

Designed for graduate and undergraduate students, course time is split between Chicago and Beijing in order to provide students with both theoretical and historical contexts and direct, hands-on experience with artists, curators, and arts institutions.

The Principal organizers include Geof Oppenhaimer, Associate Professor of Practice in the Arts, and Orianna Cacchione, Curator of Global Contemporary Art.

Politics and Competition

Competition for limited resources has always played a key part in everyday life and in long-term social change. But it is only in modern times that competition is institutionalized and glorified first in the economic sphere, and then in politics, professional development, religion, popular culture, and more. It can well be said that the age of modernity is also an age of the rise and domination of institutionalized forms of competition. What are the roles of states and wars in this historical development? What are the consequences of this development to people’s life? What is the long-term social impact of this development? With these questions in mind, we propose to bring scholars of several disciplines together in a new workshop entitled “Politics and Competition.”

Principal investigator for this proposal is Dingxin Zhao, Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago. He works in collaboration with Shizheng Fend, Professor of Sociology at Renmin University and Tianbiao Zhu, Professor of Sociology at Zheijang University.


Science, Energy, Medicine, and Public Health

Preparation for PUMC-UChicago Centennial Education Event

The University of Chicago and Peking Union Medical College have had a long and productive relationship for over a century. During that time, collaborative efforts have included education, training, resource development and an increase in cultural competency. Nowhere is the bond stronger than between the respective Departments of Radiology which share a common heritage through Paul Hodges, M.D., first Chair of PUMC Radiology from 1919-1927, and first Chair of UC Radiology from 1927-1952. The approaching 2021 Centennial for PUMCH is auspicious and meaningful, as both Institutions have built a successful, mutually beneficial relationship. This proposal is for financial support to gather historical information from the archives of UC, PUMC, the Rockefeller Foundation and the China Medical Board in preparation for a Centennial review, educational symposium and celebration planned in 2021 in accord with the China Medical Board and PUMCH. The proposal is predicated on a future successful application for the conference/celebration that is expected to garner widespread support and publicity.

It is realized that this request is unusual, but the funding will allow a depth of research not possible under normal circumstances in collaboration with our collaborators in China. It is expected that the research will be performed by knowledgeable radiology residents, graduate students and scientists, in addition to faculty oversight. A formal report will be compiled jointly by the participants to memorialize the relationship and its import. The process from inception to completion of report is expected to require six months of activity.

The Principal investigator for this project is David Paushter, Professor and Chair for Radiology Department at the University of Chicago in collaboration with Dr. Jin, Professor and Chair of Radiology at Peking University Medical School.

Continuation of a Peking University-UChicago Graduate Course on Psychiatric Genetics

This application seeks for a continued support of a joint 2018 Graduate Course on Psychiatric Genomics and Imaging Genetics, that was co-sponsored by UChicago Beijing Center and Peking University, one of the most prestigious universities in China. This course aimed to deepen the collaboration between the two world-class institutions by offering the graduate students of Peking University an opportunity to interact with internationally leading professors of advanced psychiatric genomics, with a particular focus on their applications toward imaging research in psychiatry. It also aimed to help promote scientific collaboration between professors at both institutions. In 2018, three UChicago professors each contributed one three-hour lecture, covering topics on functional genomics, pluripotent stem cell models, epigenetics, genetic basis of common mental disorders and behavioral traits, multi-omics approach and precision medicine in psychiatry. The 2018 course was very well-received by ~35 graduate students. It helps the students to grasp the most updated approaches on studying psychiatric genomics related to brain imaging. This joint effort also promoted a substantial collaboration between UChicago professors and local institutions, with co-authoring papers and engaging on an international collaborative grant application. We plan to improve the 2019 course by introducing more basic concepts of psychiatric genomics, enhancing group discussions that are very much liked by the students, and by adding a lecture about brain imaging taught by a UChicago professor. We anticipate the 2019 course would be more attractive and informative to the students. It will also strengthen the collaborations between these two prominent world-class institutions.

Jubao Duan, Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience at UChicago is the principal investigator, and he collaborates with Wei-hua Yue from the 6th Hospital of Peking University.

China-US Conference on Clinical Ethics Consultation

Clinical Ethics Consultation is a standard at all US Academic Medical Centers. In China although institutional Review Boards are standard Clinical Medical Ethics consultation and educational case conferences are not standard. The University in cooperation with the China Medical Board has developed a Clinical Leadership Development Fellowship in which the MacLean Clinical Medical Ethics Fellowship is a critical component. As part of that fellowship the fellows are educated and participate in the ethics consults and clinical case conference. We wish to leverage these fellows' knowledge and experience to develop a model clinical Medical Ethics case conference and ethics consultation service. The workshop aims to let more key representatives from hospital management level know the working model of clinical ethics consultation in University of Chicago: historical perspectives, institution policy level, details of the training program, career paths for the fellows, and importantly how it helps to resolve the ethical issues related to DPR and improve patient experiences.

  • The impact on reducing the medical legal impact on the hospitals.
  • Demonstrate the Effect of Clinical Medical Ethics Consultation on Healthcare Costs
  • The current fellows who will all be back in China (4 in Beijing) can present their experience and how it will help them in their career development.
  • The educational impact, for medical students in teaching hospitals, and for physicians with continuing education will be additive to the “regular/standard training program” in the hospitals assigned by NHFPC (former Ministry of Health)

The principal organizers for this proposal are Michael Millis of UChicago and Yali Cong, Ph.D., Dean and Professor Medical Ethics Program of Medical Ethics and Health Law at Peking University Health Science Center. They collaborate with a more Peking University staff as well.

International Symposium on Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been evolving into a mature and effective technology in treating carefully selected patients with movement disorders in the US and Europe over the past 20 years. The University of Chicago is among the leading institutes that treat movement disorders with DBS at a high standard of care. In contrast, DBS is still an emerging technology in most hospitals and institutes in China. There is an unmet need in improving patient care using DBS in China.  We propose to organize an international symposium on DBS at the University of Chicago Center in Beijing. The aims of this symposium are to establish a platform for broad exchanges between the University of Chicago and leading institutes and hospitals in movement disorders and DBS in China; educate movement disorder specialists in neurology and neurosurgery in China by introducing the full spectrum of standard techniques and clinical use of DBS; promote research collaborations leveraging our combined patient resources, educational strengths, and trainee interests; and promote the visibility of University of Chicago Medicine in China as well as global engagement, and to facilitate international consultations and referrals. This symposium will not only help to improve the standard care of the patients with movement disorders using DBS in China, but also foster future collaborations between the University of Chicago and China in research, promote the visibility of University of Chicago Medicine in global engagement and facilitate international consultations and referrals.

The principal organizers for this proposal are Faculty from UChicago’s Department of Neurology, Tao Xie, Peter Warnke, and Xiaoxi Zhuang. They work in collaboration with Shendi Chen from Ruijing Hospital, Shanghai, Haibo Chen and Wen Su from Beijing Hospital, Piu Chen from Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing, and Jianguo Zhang from Tiantan Hospital, Beijing.

New Therapies for Hepatobiliary Malignancies and Academic Development Conference

The field of Hepatobiliary disease is undergoing a dramatic transition. Tumors are being characterized by genetic markers that allow them to be treated by targeted agents and immunotherapy. Once diagnosed the treatment options have never been as numerous. There are few well controlled trials that help guide practitioners. The experience of International leaders in the field is required to inform physicians caring for these patients of the new diagnostic and treatment options. Internationally recognized leaders from China, Asia, the US and Europe will provide their extensive and varied experience.

The principal organizers for this proposal are Michael Millis Professor of Surgery and Mitchell Posner Professor of Surgery and Chief of Surgical Oncology at the University of Chicago. They collaborate with Yilei Mao, M.D., Professor of Surgery at PUMC and Editor in Chief at AME Publishing.

Topics in Nerve Compression and Injury: Atypical Nerve Compression, Nerve Repair, and Nerve Transfers

As the world patient population ages, the prevalence of nerve compression syndromes has increased. The first part of this course is to discuss the common compression syndromes, carpal tunnel and cubital tunnel, followed by a discussion of less common compression syndromes: radial tunnel, pronator tunnel, etc. Our object is to discuss the anatomy, cause, diagnostic techniques, and treatment, both conservative and surgical. We plan on using fresh frozen cadaveric arms for demonstrations of both anatomy and treatment. As industrialization expands around the world, more nerve injuries occur.

Knowledge about correct diagnosis and treatment planning is critical for hand surgeons to optimize patient outcomes. We plan on presenting on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic nerve injuries. Our object is to discuss the anatomy, pathophysiology of acute and delayed treatment of these nerve injuries. We plan on using fresh frozen cadaveric arms for demonstrating surgical repairs of acute injuries, how to perform nerve transfers, and how to perform tendon transfers.

The principal organizers for this proposal are Daniel Mass and Jennifer M. Wolf, Professors of Orthopedic Surgery at the University of Chicago, and Bo Liu, Associate Professor of Hand Surgery at Peking University.

Recovery and Peer Support in Community Mental Health Services: U.S. China Exchange for a Paradigm Shift

In recent years, community mental health has become a keyword in China. However, the services provided by the ambitious state-run program are by and large biomedical, paternalistic, and focused on managing patients who are putatively violent. A paradigm shift is thus required to make community mental health in China more comprehensive, rights-based, person centered, and inclusive of the voices of patients and caregivers. Key stakeholders in China are looking toward recovery and peer support, approaches well established in the United States and some other countries, for inspirations. With the joint support of the Center in Beijing and the Campus in Hong Kong, this project seeks to explore and promote concepts and practices of recovery and peer support in China. First, a national conference will be held in Guangzhou to share American and Chinese experiences, and to advocate these new approaches to policymakers and providers. Site visits will then be conducted in Guangzhou and Chengdu to discuss details of collaboration with local organizations. Finally, the faculty lead will conduct a two-week research residency in Hong Kong in order to learn the development of recovery and peer support there, and to build synergy with relevant academic units and service agencies. After these activities, applications will be made to NIH and other funding sources to support collaborative research and interventions with partner institutions. The proposed activities and future collaborations will make a positive impact on China’s mental health service reform, and will contribute to all three strategic areas of the University’s global programming.

Zhiying Ma, Assistant Professor for the School of Social Service Administration (UChicago) is the principal organizer for this proposal. She collaborates Liang Zhou, Vice Dean for the School of Mental Health (Guangzhou Medical University), Guizhong Yao, Former Vice President (Peking University 6th Hospital), and Chengqi He, Director of the Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation (West China Hospital, Sichuan University).

Update on Diagnostic Pathology: An International Symposium

This symposium is a platform for UChicago pathology faculty leaders to showcase our expertise in diagnostic pathology and teaching, and to interact with our colleagues in Wuhan University as well as other local hospitals. We will discuss diagnosis, treatment, as well as research related to each speaker’s expertise. We will emphasize on recent advancement in surgical pathology research and new practice paradigm, as well as international standard in tumor classification, including gynecological, CNS, gastrointestinal and lymphoid and hematopoietic tumors. This symposium will be a continuation of our previous symposia series on pathologic diagnosis and clinicopathologic correlation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which had been held annually since 2015. Upon the completion of the symposium, we hope to further strengthen the collaboration between UChicago Pathology and Wuhan University, and to facilitate continuing exchange in ideas, training, and international consultations through telepathology.

The principal organizer for this proposal is Shu-Yaun Xiao, Professor of Pathology at the University of Chicago. Collaborating with Xiangtin Yu of Wuhan University and Xueying Shi of Beijing University.

Residency Training Symposium and Resident Exchange

In the past 5 years, the University of Chicago Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), China Medical Board and National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (NHFPC) have collaborated in a residency exchange program in medicine, surgery and other disciplines. To date, 40 residents from China and the U.S. have participated.

As the allied partner, the UChicago Medicine has been intimately involved in China’s efforts to standardize its residency training programs, which in parts, are modeled on the American residency training method that is characterized by its emphasis on Milestones and Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs), two signature competency-based skills development methods. The Chinese national mandate of implementing a standardized residency requirement for all physicians in China by 2020 has created immense needs for ideas and technical support from the outside institutions especially western programs with long history of residency training tradition and successful training outcomes. With that as a backdrop, the UChicago Medicine is well positioned to impact this effort in a meaningful way, influencing the contents, methods, and direction of the national residency training in China.

We believe the unwavering support from the UChicago Beijing Center is crucial to the preservation and sustainability of the accumulated achievements. We propose to continue the residency exchange program and envision medical professional workshops in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and palliative care in 2019-2020 academic year. We are confident these efforts will help further the mission of global engagement, and bridging the mutual understanding of medicine, science and culture.

The principal organizers for the proposal are Renslow Sherer, Professor of Medicine from the University of Chicago, and John Lio, Wuhan University Residency Program Co-Director at the University of Chicago. They collaborated with a group of Residency Program Directors from Peking Unions Medical Center Hospital, National Health and Family Planning Commission, and the University of Chicago.